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Posted by on Mar 7, 2012 in Uncategorized | 0 comments

​​​​Icekkamen deg wakud n Arrif-ublik

Ajeǧid Ɛebd l-ḥafiḍ (1876-1937) izzenz tammurt n Lmeɣrib deg waɣan n Fes (verdrag van Fes) deg useggʷas n 1912. Ajeǧid-a iqqim d aɣbař n ubaru n tamara i ikkin x Tmurt n Arrif; aqa ɛad rux ttekk xas tamara zeg inni i d yusin awarnas! D manaya i ijjin muḥemmed ameẓyan aqeřɛi ad ismun iqeřɛiyen. Tuɣa itegg tizemmar nnes ḥuma war itejji řbarani ad yadef ɣar tmurt n Arrif arami ɣar uneggar immut x ufus n icekkamen n ‘arrigularis’ di řeɛzib n Ɛellal Uqeddur aseggʷas n 1912. D manaya ɛawed i issiwḍen mmis n ɛebd-Krim ad ijj garra deg wezyen ak-d Useppanyu d Wefransis. Zeg inni tuɣa ittacaren řexburat zi Arrif issakkʷaḍ iten i řeɛdu: Ali l-Majawi ben l-mokhtar. Tiwengimin i da swadday smuṭṭyeɣ tent id zi tegřanzect ɣar Tmaziɣt n Arrif zeg wedřis n C.R.Pennell. 1

Deg uyur n Febrayer aseggʷas n 1925, ijj n urgaz qqeren as Ali l-Majawi ben l-mokhtar zegict n teqbič n ait Warrayen,zi tinni tuɣa war iǧin casadu řeḥkam n Ɛebd-Krim, iru s řxaḍar nnes ɣar ijj n tɛessast tuɣa dayes řɛeskar n Fransa ḥuma ad asen issiweḍřexbar i d yiwi zi Arrif ameqqran. Min t ijjin ad yegg manaya ɛlaḥsab min nnan Ifransisen belli tuɣa iḥwaj tinɛacin, ɛawed qbeř i manaya tuɣa yudef di ca n imxumbar (imenɣan) jar iseggʷusa n 1920-1923. Ifransisen tuɣa teggen aṭṭas ttiqqet di řexburat nnes. Ḥuma ad iẓwa ɣar Arrif,tuɣa izemmar ad yadef ad iffeɣ- zi tmurt i xef testeɛmar Fransa ɣar tmurt n Arrif- s ijj n ttesriḥ ifirma xasmmis n Ɛebd-Krimsimant nnesdeg useggʷas n 1923 umi tuɣa Ali l-Majjawi ben l-mokhtar d amazun(boodschapper) jar mmis n Ɛebd-Krim d imɣaren n teqbič n Ait Warrayen. Di třemmizt-a, am tuɣa iǧa mselleḥ s usireg (=laissez-passer), iẓwa ɣar Arrif igga ssibba aqa yurezzu x ijj n umɣar d Warrayni innuwjew-d ɣar Arrif, iweddar řexbar nnes war d idwiř ɛad. Yudef ɣar Arrif x uɣezdis n wenẓul (jjihet n ljanub), iqḍeɛ abrid n macina n Fes-Taza zzat i Masun ass n 13 Janayer.


Tiwecca nnes ixecc ɣar lqecla n bu-Mɛawya zzat i Sakka (ssa i yekka!). Yufa din ijj n řqayed d Awaryiɣeř, d ijj n ccrif zeg ait Waryiɣeř, d xemsa n řɛeskar.Tuɣa ɣarsen ttilifun issakkʷaḍ ɣar Ɛri bu Ɛuqba d Wejdir.Isřa i řqayed nni iqqar asen i yewdan aqa nniyyet nsen zi twaggit n l-meḥkama n Sakka aqa ḥuma ad arezmen tewwart i wemhawad ak-d imezḍaɣ n jjehet n Fransa ḥuma ad asen ɣar řeswaq n Arrif. Tuɣa itwanna as iAli l-Majawi belli mmis n Ɛebd-Krim inna aqa war ixs ca ad imneɣ ak-d Fransa, maca waxxa ammu tuɣa issewjad ad ihud xtmiwa n Fransa,afus deg ufus, ak-d Si Xalil ben Mulay Mḥemmed,wenni tuɣa yarrin ixf nnes d mmis n bu-teɣyuč (bu-ḥmara). Ssi Xalil tuɣa izwar igga řbarud, imneɣ ak-d Fransa deg Ait Warrayen asuggʷas n 1922, ssenni iẓwa ɣar Arrif aseggʷas n 1923, arrint ad yegg annay ak-d inni id yarewřen zi tmiwa n Fransa.


Ali l-Mejawi yiweḍ it řexbar aqa Ssi Xalil tuɣa itraja twiza zi Arrif ḥuma ad issars afus nnes x tmura i testeɛmar Fransa. Admar (front) n Sakka tuɣa itwaḥḍa s ijj n tesmunt n 400 n řɛeskar n Arrif, sɛeddun ussan nsen deg weřmad n řbařuḍ, d řebni n ifran di tmurt mani ɣa nnuffaren zi teyyita n ṭṭiyyarat.


Deg wass n 16 Yanayer, Ali l-Majawi yarzef ɣar ssuq n jjemɛa di Ɛin uhra, uca iḥekkar i yijj n ubarreḥ igg it řqayed Abḍařes i ayt  Bu-Yeḥyi i iǧan x tmiwa n Fransa, itettar zzaysen ad d asen ɣar tmurt n Arrif-ublik ad ggen tanezzawt (ttijara), ad yiři manaya d tasertit (ssiyyasa) i tesmunit n teqbič. Mmis n Ɛebd-Krim simant nnes tuɣa iḍaffar tasertit-a di řeswaq.Ali l-Majawi ikka aṭṭas n řeswaq, iteggřeswaq d abrid ḥuma ad irḥem s tnufra ɣar Wejdir. Dinni i iḥekkar i tezniwt (propaganda) i itwaggen ḥuma ad bedden Irifiyyen x iḍaren nsen ad azen x Fransa d Seppanya. Zzat i řeswaq i tuɣa yudsen xweymir n Irumiyyen amecnaw sidi Ɛři bu-Ɛuqba, ssuq n řetnayen n ait Tuzin, iḥekkar ucekkam-a x da nessieř sennej, aqa aydud iřha itegg twiza, srusan asmawen nsenḥuma ad uyuren ad ɛarnen aqarṭas x uɣezdis n mmis n Ɛebd-Krim. Maca řexbar n tidett i yessiweḍ isřat di ssuq n řabeɛ deg ait Waryiɣeř.


Isřa i l-wazir, Ssi Yazid ben Ḥemmu, issawař:inna sen i ait (bab) n tmurt ad arren taynit i ddin ad t ḍfarennican ḥuma ad xasen issar Arebbi. Aqa mmis n Ɛebd-Krim itettar zi kuř ijj ad iddar di řaman u inehha x warway (verontrusten), aqa ad yiři d aquran (iqseḥ) ak-d yinni ɣa iggen ca war iɛdiř. Aqa wenni inɣin ad itwaneɣ,u wen yucaren ad as itwaqess ufus nnes afusi”.


Tiwecca nnes iruḥ ucekkam ɣar ssuq n řexmis zzat i Wejdir, mani igga Ḥmed bu Dra, l-wazir n garra, ijj n ubarreḥ inna aqa Irifiyyen ḥarten x (teqbič n) teẓrut, yarra tiɣit (s řefḍeř n) i ijj qqaren as Axriru. Ssenni, iruḥ Ali l-Majawi ɣar Wejdir. Yufa mmis n Ɛebd-Krim ibeddeř amɣim ameqqran (hoofdkwartier), immuṭṭi ɣar Wezɣar. Ḥuma ad iqqim ucekkam-a n Wefransis deg Wejdir, ixess ad ɣares yiři ijj n tessriḥ zi l-meḥkama yura di tewriqt, sminzi wen war ɣar iǧica ttesriḥ tazzřen xas. Maca Ali l-Majawi deɣya immewc as ttesriḥ sminzi tuɣa ɣares qbeř ijj n usireg (laissez-passer) uca iqqim ‘taggara n imalas’ (week-end) deg Wejdirjar 24 d 26 zeg uyur nYanayer; maca amnni i iqqim itraḥ itase-d jar Wejdir d Wezɣar. Aṭṭas n temsřayin i yeẓra.Iẓra din jar 80 d 100 ineḥbas d Iseppunyaḥeffaren ixendaq d ifran, inneɣni tuɣa arrin ten ad ggen iqarṭasen n řbarud, ca nneɣni tuɣa teggen tiqumam (tacmant n ccark) i issřeqqan zi řgaz. Aṭṭas n wudayen tuɣa sxeddamen ten ad ggen řbumbat n ufus s tqedduḥin n macca (blikjes)immendaren.Tuɣa din ca ineḥbas nneɣni d Iruppawiyyen gguren x ifiřan n ttilifun ɛeddřen ten. Deg wass n řexmis di Yanayer wiss 27,iruḥ ɣar Wezɣar (mani teǧa l-meḥkama) ad igg ijj n wemqabař ak-d mmis n Ɛebd-Krim. Iẓra řfusinat n Ḥmed bu Dra d řfusina n Si Ḥmed Ciddi, wanita tuɣa iǧa x řexraṣ n řɛeskar d wesmuni n řeɛcur (belastingen) d řexṭiyyat (boetes, strafrecht). Řfusinat-a d tenni n mmis n Ɛebd-Krim tuɣa-ayent arewsent di tassut n Iruppawiyyen.Bu Dra isseqsa Ali l-Majawi x waddud n tsertit (de politieke situatie) deg ait Warrayen, mmis n Ɛebd-Krim tuɣa iḥdar.


Marra min inna Ali l-Majaw yura tijj n umaray (secretaire); ssenni ssekkent ɣar barra, nnan as ruḥ artwařa nneɣni. Řexburat i xef tuɣa yerezzu war ten yufi minzi war t jjin ad imqabař ak-d Ɛebd-Krim waxxa Ssi Xalil ǧa itseqsa t x ait Warrayen.Teɛdu simana, igga Ali l-Majawi ad iffeɣ zeg Wejdir.Inna: “ igeɛɛed ayi zɛaf ɣar uzeǧif sminzi řɛic iɣřa dini, u ijj war dac ittic ca”


Maca rexxu ḥuma ad iffeɣ zeg Wejdir, ixess it ɛawed ttesriḥ. Ƴar ijj n tuffut n 2 Febrayer, iruḥ ɣar řfusina n Wezɣar. Maca nnan as ad idweř awarni wezgen n wass. Ƴar uneggar iwca as Bu Dra ttesriḥ, uca rexdenni i yuyur d abrid. Ikka abrid n Ccawen x uɣexdis n Ƴmara. Ƴar wakud nni, tuɣa iqqim břa tinɛacin s uyenni war ikemmeř ca x webrid nnes ɣar Ccawen, mani tuɣa igga ad iraḥ twařat tamezwarut. Ikka x uɣezdis n ait Ɛmart, d Igzennayen, mani iẓra timudda (manoeuvres,munåwaråt) n ihuddan i tuɣa itwaggen x weymir n tmurt i tḥewwes Fransa. Acekkam-a inna sen i Ifransisen aqa iẓra ca n 1400 n řɛeskar n mmis n Ɛebd-Krim. Inna sen ɛawed aqa imɣaren n arrif war dasen iqqim ca ad hudden x Fransa, maca amɣar nsen ameqqran war dasen iwci ca ttesriḥ, inna asen aqa ‘řmijař ɛad  war d yiwiḍ.


Ƴar uneggar yiweḍ Ali l-Majawi ɣar wemcan mani ǧan řɛeskar n Fransauca idba itɛuqqa asen-d uffuren.

Arebɛa n tmesřayin i tuɣa dayes deg wassaɣ (rapport) nni.


Amezwaru, asettef n řexbar i d yiwi Ali l-Mejawi iddez amen tenna. Kuř mma issiwer x ca, iddakkwař ɣar wawař x (unagraw-systeem) n ttilifun, d mammec teggent řfusinattemsawaḍent ak-d iwdan, d uḥeṭṭu n weydud deg Wejdir.


Wis tnayen, iwca ijj n uxarreṣ yuǧeɣ x ddewla n Arrif. Amec iẓra nican, mmis n Ɛebd-Krim tuɣa ɣares marra řɛeskar imeqqranen d imḍebbaren imeqqranen -i yudsen i weymir n Fransa- sadu afus nnes; waxxa aṭṭas idsen war carhen,ticti d ict, ad hudden x Fransa.


Wis třata, tuɣa ɣares inzaten (ddalil) belli mmis n Ɛebd-Krim tuɣa-t swadday i wziyyar n wakud, war das itɣimi ca (n wussan) ad ihudd x Fransa.


Ƴar uneggar, inna asen aqa tudart (řɛic d řmacur) terdweř teqseḥ deg Wejdir,iẓra manaya (amc iqqar netta) di tmura yudsen aymir n Fransa, mani iẓra řɛeskar –iwya as-d Arebbi- war jjiwnen aɣrum.


Ikemmeř rhad nnes s manaya: { Zi min sřiɣ zeg iwdan, inna ayi ixf inu aqa mmis n Ɛebd-Krim temmarniy as rhibet (ccan) ktar zi twařat taneggarut umi ruḥeɣ ɣar Arrif deg useggwas n 1923. Maca timesřayin n tudart iḥwajen iwdan iqseḥ ad tent tafed. Aṭṭas n dcurat uḥren s usekki n tɛawant n yewdan, maca uřa d ijj i ma izemmar ad yarzem aqemmum nnes;mmis n Ɛebd-Krim inna aqa war ithuddi ca x Fransa sminzi war ɣares ca sminzi i ɣa issec x tnayen n idmaren (frontlines) maca, tidett, aqa ɣares řeɛdawetak-d Fransa. U necc tamneɣ belli netta igga ad issezɛem Ssi Xalil mmis n Mulay Mḥemmed ḥuma ad as ikemmeř x uxarreṣ nnes.}

S manya itkemmař wawař x Ali l-Majawi, acekkam i tuɣa issakkʷaḍen ineɣmisen n Arrif i Fransa.


(1) A Critical Investigation of the Opposition of the Rifi Confederation led bij      Muhammad bin Abdelkarim el Khattabi to Spanish Colonial Expansion in Northern Morocco 1929-1925 – C R Pennell #2-PP:727-733.

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