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Posted by on Feb 2, 2012 in Geschiedenis | 0 comments

Udem n Arrif d waddud n Irifiyyen

Qqaren aneɣ idřisen n midden aqa ameddur n Arrif zeg wami iǧa netta d ilelli (= free), tuɣa traɣan as waɛraben ‘blad es-Siba” (= onbedwongen land, dissident) taɣennant i “blad el-Maxzen”(= het land van de regering). Din ɛad rux iwdan ddaren ussan n arrifublik. Ijj n twara sseqsiɣ ḥennas n baba, Taɛisat (18782-1992) x Arrif deg wakud n Muhamed Ameẓyan Aqeřɛi d wakud n mmis n Ɛebd-Krim, tenna ayi aqa aṭṭas n tamara i ikkin x Irifiyyen waxxa qbeř i d ɣa yadef Uṛumi: “umi ɛeqřeɣ necc d tameẓyant iǧa war iǧi bu Uṛumi, ddenya tuɣa teɛbed ccarq waha, ddenya tuɣa tcarraq waha, wenni i ɣa ixḍa imendi ad t ineɣ buheyyuf]”.  Ḥenna Taɛisat ɣares tiẓri ( eigen theorie) nnes weḥdes x min ijjin Aseppanyu yudef d ɣar tmurt n Irifeyyen: [“…Irifiyyen tuɣa tiraren dama, iǧa tiraren tsayerhah, inna sen Uṛumi ruḥet muqret ma tiraren tsayerhah niɣ dama, mara tiraren tsayehah aqa faqen (= wakker, alert), war daysen iḍemmeɛ ḥed, mara tiraren dama aqa tiweḍ-d řweqt nsen ad ten d yadef. Bab n dama ikkar iqbar x uɛeddis ařami d tameddit, ssenni uca ibda ireḥḥem d Uṛumi…ařami iṭṭef tammurt.]” Ḥenna Taɛisat ɣares ijj n teẓri (= theorie) nneɣni i ijjin Irifiyyen ad nderfen deg umenɣi nsen ak d Useppanyu d Wefransis: [“….Irifeyyen tuɣa msebḍan, ḥed tuɣa itazzeř x Uṛumi, ḥed nneɣni tuɣa yarebbu txancet i wṛumi”].

Manaya d tidet imsar; mara neɣra amezruy n Arrif deg wakud n imenɣan ntaff aqa Irifiyyen msebḍan x arebɛa, (1) tuɣa din inni i ccaten deg Useppanyu, (2) tuɣa din inni ippulsen ɣar Useppanyu, (3) tuɣa din inni itcekkmen ɣar Useppanyu. (4) tuɣa din inni iḥekkmen s yisem n Useppanyu. Zeg inni tuɣa iḥekmen s yisem n Useppanyu ad idareɣ Ɛmar uccen. Ad xas ssiwřeɣ drus minzi ad as ggeɣ amcan nnes weḥdes twarat nneɣni. Ɛmar uccen tuɣa t, amezwaru, d acekkam n Useppanyu ticarmin (= qbeř) i ɣa idweř d nnayeb. Tuɣa ikessi d tinɛacin x Useppanyu zi Mrič ɣar Dar Kebdani, ifarreq itent x iwdan ḥuma war triḥen ad jahden maɣar deg wakud nni, Ait-Said tuɣa war izemmar ad ten-d yadef Useppanyu. Mařa nexs ad nessen mammec tuɣa xezzaren Irifiyyen deg wakud nni ɣar inni tuɣa itcekkmen ɣar Useppanyu? Ejj ad nseř i min dayi inna ssi Bouchaib Al-Phatihi (1926-2008): [“Zeg inni tuɣa i d ikessin tinɛacin x Useppanyu, Ɛmar uccen, Ɛmar n Ɛmar, Boumedyen n Bitti. Ɛmar n Ɛmar arejment s weẓru di Řeɛri nnafeɛ, aqa din rexu rexu aɣbar nnes. Tarejmit teqbič, tuɣa d ussan n řeḥmu, ggin as am weqzin immuzzaren, iqqim din arebɛa n wussan deg unebdu, ttasen d yiṭan tetten dayes, sennej i manaya, ggin din wi t iḥeṭṭan ḥuma war t ikessi ḥedd ad t inḍeř di tmeḍřin. Issis, tarwa nnes xezzaren dayes, arami ikemmeř arebɛa n wussan, ceṭṭen din ca n yexsan, xenni isin ten neḍřen ten. Ɛmar uccen netta islek”!]. Irifiyyen tuɣa war texsen ḥed ad yiři d acekkam jar asen. waxxa am nni Irifiyyen tuɣa war ɛeddun ca ayawya; ijj n twara imsar, itɛawad ayi ssi Bouchaib Al-Phatihi x yiřes n ssi Cɛayeb n Si Ɛmar [“… tuɣa neggur ɣar tiṭṭawin, tuɣa din ijj n umxazni qqaren as ssi Ɛebdella, inna ayi niweḍ Targist, inna ayi neswa din řqehwa, inna ayi ijj n wemcun n yudanti issařay řeḥwayej sennej i řkar, inna as ijj n umesřem iwa llah yaweddi,  necc ticceɣ ac d maliṭa inu war tt ssiřye d, uday aya tmenɛed xas maliṭa necc lla, inna as: ‘necc ɣari uday xir zi ɛecra n imseřmen’, netta isřa as Ɛmar uccen. Uca inna as i ssi Ɛebdellah: ‘Win sḍar it i d zi ṭṭumubin aqa ad ayes tejjed ca n řeɛmar’, ssi Ɛebdella d azennay, umi ɣares yiweḍ inna as: ‘Ɛzizit inu ḍar d, ḍar d a taɛzizit inu ḍar d!, inna ayi (Cɛayeb n ssi Ɛmar) necc ḥḍareɣ,  inna ayi xmi i t ɣa yewwet s tarbaɛect, s ukeccuḍ nni n tarbaɛect, inna ayi xmi ɣa isɣuy, qeǧɛen-d ɣares iṛumiyyen, inna ayi tasen d Iṛimiyyen, nitni ad neṭḥen di Ɛmar Uccen nitni iři ad arewřen, ařami i t iṣeffa s kuřci, mayemmi i ɣa yini ɣari ijj n wuday ḥsen zi ɛecra n imseřmen, war dayes ijji ca, ikemmeř it”].

Deg iyyar d ijj, Irifiyyen ɛad rux, itett iten wuř nsen x tmurt nsen, ancnaw mamec tuɣa i ten itett wuř nsen zman. Ad neḍfar min iqqar ssi Bouchaib di tmesřacta imsaren di ssuq n Řkebdani:

[“…ijj zeg Iřummuyen iruḥ ad iseɣ atay uca inna as: ‘ma d asebḥan watay aya niɣ?, inna as d ijj n upulis: ‘Iwa kenniw Arrif n tmaraqt, tarezzum ad teswem atay d aṣebḥan ɛad!, isřa yasen ijj n weryaz tuɣa t din zzat n sen uca netta ad tiwwet s umeddarḍar, imarɣ it di tmurt. Fekken ten iwdan di ssuq, uca sseẓwan ten mxazniya ajemmaḍin ɣar Ɛmar uccen, umi i ten i ɣa sseẓwan, inna upulis nni i Ɛmar uccen: ‘aqa twarid a sidi řqayed, aqa twarid iwta ayi, igga ayi ammu, igga ayi ammu, aqa necc ɣari arruḍ n řmexzen…(s minzi d ac qqareɣ waxxa tuɣa Ɛmar uccen d aistiɛmari, tuɣa itett it wuř nnes.) Inna as Ɛmar uccen: necc war d ayi qqar ca arruḍ n řmexzen, aqa arrimet n wanita i cek iwtin war dayes ttifed ijj n wemcan war dayes taxfift, aqa netta i d ac izzaren ɣar řmexzen!...inna as ma ad temsumuḥem niɣ ad cek ẓẓareyḍeɣ”].

Twiza jar tqebbař n Arrif ntaff itt ura deg izřan n Arrif. Ijj n umjahed zi taddart n Řkebdani (ait-Said, dcar n ait Řefqih), tuɣa iccat aqarṭas di tmurt n Iqeřɛeyen, iwyent id xas temɣarin izřan. Timɣarin n ait řefqi ɛad ɛeqřent x yizři aya:

{Aqa-m war dayi inɣi, aqa-m war dayi ihbi

ḥaca mmuḥ n uɛellal immuten d uřefqih

ijja mawsa tuyeř deg wedrar n uqeřɛi.}

Deg uyur wis 12 n useggʷas n 1991, iɛawed ayi ssi Bouchaib Al-Phatihi (zi Dar Kebdani), aqa imsar  ijj n twara deg ijj n dcar n Arrif tekkar teqbič, s irgazen d temɣarin, hedmen taddart n ijj zeg inni tuɣa yexs ujeǧid n Fes ad t yarr d řḥakem niɣ d anezzarfu x dcar nni. Issekk d ujeǧid tabrat i Mohamed Lḥaḍri (zi Řkebdani, dcar n leḥḍara (iḥtareyyen) deg Izɛumen) ḥuma ad yumur iwdan iḥedmen taddart n weqcic ad kkaren ad as tt bnan. Ikkar d ijj zi dcar inna as i wḥeṭri: ma ad as iniɣ uřa i Řwazna ad t as ad tebna taddart i weqcic! sminzi uřa d timɣarin carcent deg wehdam n taddart n weqcic deg wemcan umi qqaren assa dhar n umarjijju. Tamɣart Tarifect řebda tecḍar di tudart nnes, iɛawd ayi ssi Bucɛayeb, inna ayi: [“…Tamecrust, tuɣa tzeddeɣ taddart n Řwazna, Řwazna nettat d tasnusect, zeg Issnuseyyen, tuɣa timɣarin tiqdimin xir zi ɛecra n yaryazen n yiḍa. Necc ɛeqřeɣ x ict tuɣa qqaren as Tamecrust zi řeɛři nnafeɛ, usin d ixewwanen, ssi buḥut umas n ..., yus d ad yacar, ikke d abrid ameqqran, iwt d nnqab; ixewwanen n zic tuɣa ccaten nqabet, ad ksen aẓru, ad ksen aẓru, ar i ɣa fɣen ɣar wexxam, ad ssidfen qubbu deg ukeccuḍ, ad t ssenhezzen, mařa faqen ait n taddart aqa ad wten ajeǧab s řbarud, mařa war imsar ca aqa tessned war din ḥed niɣ ṭṣen. Tamɣart umi faten i teǧa, min i ɣa texdem? Umi tuca ak d nqabet nni uca tekkar tuři x tzeqqa. Umi i ɣa texzar tufa din axewwan, nettat ad tḥart x teṣḍart uca ad tewwet ɣar uɣembub, idweř war dayes min ɣa texzared”]. War ntettu ca tasderfit i tegga tmeṭṭut tarifect ak d ‘imjahden’. Man aya ntaff it d tiggaz di tukkasin (= erfgoed) n Arrif, amecnaw izřan a n Trifect:

[Řqařeb n ssukkʷar iziyyen s ufiřu, Faḍma tawaryiɣeč cenna mara tuřu, cenna mara tebyes abyas n arebɛa duru, cenna mara tegga s i Mḥend hellaralu”].

Niɣ ntaff mani nneɣni: [kenniw ait-Temsaman d imjahden zi řebda, tjahdem s ufus nwem, tjahdem ura s tniba, zzad x weɛrur nsent, ttařyent ak d iṣuḍar”. Iqqar aneɣ David Hart3 aqa di tmurt n Arrif, tameddurt tuɣa temsebḍa x tnayen: din tameddurt n yirgazen d tenni n temɣarin. Iwetman xeddmen tafeǧaḥt, zarɛen carzen tammurt; řeqḍen, ssarwaten zzuzzaren imendi, tarran (teẓẓun) imɣan (= planten), řeqḍen řxuḍart. Teggen taryiwin, teggen řfusawat (= sloten) n waman; bennan tudrin, teggen řfaxar s ukeccuḍ nni i d zedment temɣarin, ḥaryen zzitun, tawyen imendi ɣar tesyart ad iḥri. Kessin řeɣbar ɣar iyyaren. Teggen atay i inewjiwen. Timɣarin mejjarent, kessint tiṣumaḍ ɣar wendrar, řeqḍent aḍir d tazart. ḥaryent imendi di tesyart n taddart. Snennan tt anguř di tefqunt, teggen tt areyyeq d umecři d umensi.

Mara nedweř ɣar umezruy n Arrif ameqqran, ntaff aqa Irifiyyen imiɣisen nitni zeg imezwura i yudfen amenɣi ak d tzernant n tmnukda (=  imperialistische agressie)  n Fransa d Seppanya. D man aya i issiwḍen Irifiyyen ad munen ad snaqřen amenɣi, wenni i tuɣa akd nnumen řebda jar asen, i twařa nneɣni ḥuma ad ndaren tiṭṭawin nsen deg Uṛumi i yexsen ad d yadef ɣar tmurt n Arrif. Zeg wakuda udfen Irifiyyen amezruy n wemdař minzi nitni d imezwura i ibdan amenɣi n teslullit (= bevrijding). Isem n wernwař (= Slag om Annual) ad iqqim yarcem di tudart, mmuten dayes ktar zi 8.000 n řɛeskar n Useppanyu. Mmis n Ɛebd-Krim simant nnes inna aqa “700 d ineḥbas, 15 n ařef jar inni immuten d inni inyezmen i nḥewwes.” Tɣir asen Arrif amecnaw timura n midden i beṭṭan axmi beṭṭan řkartet, (Internationale conventie te Algeciras). Ɛemmars war imsar deg umezruy n Imaziɣen ad ixarres Umaziɣ ad issiři takbabt (= vlag) n tegduda (republiek) di tmurt n Tmezɣa arami t ggin Irifiyyen di tmurt n Arrif deg usseggʷas n 1923. Idweř war iqqim ḥed war issin niɣ war isři x tmurt n Arrif.

Di Tmurt n Fransa, imsar deg wass wis 12 n uyur wis 10, 900.000 n iwdan munen di tendint n Paris mani tekkar4 tmesmunt n FCP (= Franse Comunistische Partij) d Isuryaliyen (= Surrealisme beveging) barrḥen x ixeddamen d imesnawen ad ɛeyben x Fransa i tuɣa iticcen afus nnes i Seppanya di tmurt n Arrif.

Ƴar uneggar, ad kenniw jjeɣ ak ijj n tenfust temsar di tmurt n Iqeřɛeyyen,  d asedwař n ʷaddud n yewdan deg wakud n zic:“ řeḥkayet4 n ijj n urgaz yemřec ufint ak-d ict n temɣart temřec deg ijj n dcar n ait-Sidař di teqbič n Iqeřɛeyen. Ijj n usseggʷas tuɣa ijj n urgaz imřec ɣares ijj n řɛarset yarra ɣares tarya n waman. Ibda itessu řeɛrast nni; tuse-d ɣares ijj n temɣart temřec. Qimen ayak d uya, iqq…t s addu ijj n wartu! Iẓri ten ijj n utarras, issekkar xafsen tɣuyyit, munen-d xafsen iwdan aṭṭas. Tamɣart tarweř, ḍfaren tt arebɛa n iwdan, nɣin tt s tezwict, ɣarsen as s tesbut (= espada, ssif) u jjin tt di barra, drin tt s ijj n uḥac. Argaz nni, tanya, yarweř ɣar ijj n taddart texřa. Iqqen xafes tawwart awarn as, ḍfaren t-id iwdan, tazzřen awarn as, ccaten t s řbarud arami yudeff taddart, ibda iccat iten-d ra netta zeg ict n tburjet, inɣa daysen sebɛa. Bdan iwdan nni tařyen x tzeqqa, qeǧɛen tiḥenya n tzeqqa arami xafes snuqqben. Iwyen-d tizizwa di teɣrasin, farɣen xafes tizizwa; qqḍen timessi di tsumaḍ n wari. Bdan neṭṭaren xafes timessi, axxam nni iccur s tzizwa d ddexxan, tizizwa ttmunent x urgaz nni, zeɛɛfent dayes, idweř war itwiri ura d ijj n řḥeyyet. Bdan iwdan neṭṭwen d xafes zi tzeqqa. ṭṭfent, Qqnen as ifassen ɣar deffar, ssufɣen t id ɣar barra, ɣeḍrent id ɣar tmurt, bdan qqaren as ait ɛemmes: d ta d řgezyet (= beloning) nnec, ɛla xaṭer d ccek i war ifehmen azeǧif nnec, ttegged řɛib di tarwa n ɛemmec. Qqaren as ammu, nitni tqessen dayes s řemwas. Ḥed itqessa as it zi txeřxarin n ifassen, ḥed itqessa as it zi tɣemmar n iɣaǧen, ḥed itqessa as it zi teɣruṭ, netta iddar ɛad, war isɣuyyu, war issiwiř. Qessent tanya zeg ifadden, bdan tqessen dayes zi ura mkuř amcan ařami war dayes qqimen idammen. Qessen as abř..r nnes,  ggin as t deg uqemmum. Yuse d ijj zeg ait ɛemmis, ikkes d taxedmect, igga as t di tiṭ, iqřeɛ as tt id, iɛawed as i tenneḍnit, iqřeɛ as tt id amexmi d istef aɣřař zeg weqcur. Netta iddar maca ɛad issaḥrat. Rexdenni řuḥen. Iwyen d timessi, farɣen tt xafes arami ihggʷa. Rexdenni uřyen taddart nnes. Hedmen tt, scemḍen tt. Řeḥwayej ufin di taddart n wenni, qaɛ wen yufin ca iksi t. Tuɣa ɣares třata n tesrafin n imendi, ksin d imendi nni marra ndarent ɣar barra, zeǧɛen t, war t iwyen, ɣir inni war ɣar iǧi ca. Ƴir imeẓřaḍ i t yiwyen. Tammurt nnes tezzenz it teqbič n Iqeřɛeyyen, farqen tt x tcuccay nsen”. Adwař ɣar wawařen n zic niɣ ɣar inzan (= spreekwoorden) n tudart tamsaset n Imaziɣen n zic, itɣima d anemɣar arexsas i wen ixsen ad issen addud n weydud.


1 I do not pretend to cover the subject in just a few short pages.

2 “Umi d yudef Useppanyu amezwaru ɣar Arrif tuɣa Faḍma inu temɣar, izdeɣ di řeɛři n tmedda, izdeɣ deg Isnusiyen, iǧa izdeɣ břa řbarud, {maca mayemmi ay d yusa Uṛumi?}. Iggur itettef ddenucet itarra t nnes, wenni ixsen akis izdeg akis izdeɣ, wenni i t ɣa iɛṣan itɛan as řbarud”. Awař n Ḥenna Taɛisat.

3 David Montgomery Hart, The Aith Waryaghar of the Moroccan Rif: An Ethnography and History. (Tucson, Arizona, 1976)

4 Description du Maroc à la fin du 19e siècle: Mouliéras, Auguste. Le Maroc inconnu : [étude géographique et sociologique]. Première partie. Exploration du Rif (Maroc septentrional).

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