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Posted by on Mar 20, 2012 in De taal | 0 comments

Logika n wawařen di Tmaziɣt

Ass-a ad nẓar tiɣit d tmusni n Imaziɣen deg iyyar n tusna d uxarreṣ di tseɣnawt (uitvinding) n wawařen. Nec war ẓriɣ ca n yiřes n midden iḍfar logica deg wesfruri n umawař amecnaw min imẓaren di tutlayt n Tmaziɣt. Mařa nḥuz areṭṭař n wawařen x midden imřadasen (-amec tessnem war iǧi sennej i wudem n tmurt ca n tutlayt teqqur-) ad naff marra awařen n Tmaziɣt qqnen ɣar wazzay n temkussna (semantisch): kuř targalt (medeklinker) teqqen ɣar wazzay n logica, arni xafes afsar d waẓri n wawaren amecnaw amezruy, amezgun, ameẓyan, ameẓẓul (= logica), amezrar; ntaff ɛawed deg umawař itwasrebzen amecnaw ‘tinufra/tiqnufra’, awař-a dayes tnayen n wawařen: qqen+ffar, qqen tiṭṭawin uca ffar. řexxu din wi das iqqaren ‘qac-qac’ (cache-cache). Ijj war izemmar ad iqqen tiṭṭawin x tiɣit yuǧɣen di twennaḍt n tseɣnawt n umsawaḍ. Acrac n tiɣit d logica ɣar Imaziɣen ntaff it deg umawař n tagant (landschap) amecnaw ‘akeffif n wuccen’, ‘akeffif n wuday’, ‘tazart n wuccen’, ‘akeffif n weqzin’ (paddestoel). ntaff ɛawed nzemmar ad nini s Tmaziɣt aqa ‘aryaz-a d aɣyuř’, tzemmared ad tinid ɛawed aqa ‘aɣyuř-a d aryaz’! Ntaff ɛawed tiɣit-a deg wawařen i war nzemmar ad nẓar; ntessen iten s wallaɣ (aǧi, alli,), amecnaw mammec ɣa nẓar da swadday aked wawař n [wadaf d waduf], niɣ ak tawařin n [gz, rgz, argaz d um-gzu]. S wesquḍeḍ n wawař (kortom), kuř awař ɣares amezruy nnes, kuř aẓwar ɣares logica nnes, kuř ijj icarc aked wi iǧan nnes. Maca mařa nus-d ɣar tidett, azzay-a n tarezzut x logica n wawařen dayes aṭṭas n weḥraǧaḍ sminzi ijj mařa war issin iřsawen n tmaziɣin nneɣni ad yekk x uzeǧif d iḍaren! War ntettu ca aqa din awařen msebḍan zi tmurt ɣar tenneɣni, s drus niɣ s waṭṭas, amecnaw: ikkunzer/iffunzer/iwwunzer, niɣ aqřab n wawař (metathese) arnan/annar/andrar, susef/sufes; nniḍen/nninaḍ, awraɣ/arwaɣ, ɣmi/mɣi,  Din awařen n tmaziɣt, ijj ad ten isseɣři, ijj war ten issɣeǧi amecnaw mařa tennid  ‘asekkum’ (aryaz i war izemmaren ad yegg ca aked temɣart), niɣ timellalin di tmurt n Tunes (Chenini-Douiret, Matmata, Sened) war iǧi axmi t tennid di Arrif. Ɛawed di Arrif aqa din imucan? war tzemared ad tinid nanna (= tante), maca qqarent deg imucan nneɣni amecnaw di dzayar mani ɛawed war tzemmared ad tinid awtem!

Ad nebda s weẓwar n [d.f]: adef, aduf, adifen (= merg). Aduf itiři ɣar daxeř n iɣes, (yudef deg iɣes, d řmux/aǧi n iɣes); zeg weẓwar n [d.f] nzemmar ad naff tadunt, nettat tadunt tudef jar weysum d teřmect. Aẓwar n [d.f] nzemmar ɛawed ad dayes naff ‘taduft/tifuda’ (= slagorde); fad, afud….

Řexxu ad nẓar aẓwar n [ll], aẓwar-a nzemmar ad zzayes negg ‘ili’ (iři), ‘illa’ (iǧa), ‘ali’ (aři) (hoogte), ‘ellu’ (icna=lullu, tlulluct), ‘m-lell’ (mřeř, cemřeř), ‘ul’ (ddinamu n tudart); ‘illu’ (free-tiřelli), ‘el’ (bezitten), ‘illi’ (=iǧi). Nzemmar ɛawed ad zzayes negg ‘Fel’ (fellawen) ‘el’ = annaj/řuɛřa. Nzemmar ad zzayes negg uřa d ‘awař’ (aw-al).

Ad nemmuṭṭi ɣar ijj n wawař nneɣni. Aẓwar n [m], ntaff dayes imi’ ‘imawen’, ixs ad yini aqemmu/iqemmumen (snavel) di Tmaziɣt n iḍa, (imi n ifri = ingaan van de grot). Tma (tama), tamawin (tmawin), nzemmar ad zzayes d nessufeɣ: tma n iɣzar. Aẓwař n wawař n [m], ntaff it deg iřsawern n irumiyen: me (latijn), me, moi (frans), m, (I am) (keltische1). Ntaff ɛawed deg weẓwar n {m}: uma, ye-mma, ult-ma, is-ma.

Řexxu ad neɣza deg weẓwar n [m.d], med: amed-ukel, mid-den (man), argaz (# man) rgez=spring; amed-dur, amed-yaz, amed=ɣař. Di Tmaziɣt n far-zic ntaff  dayes awař n ‘medikina’: med = man,  kan = kunst/fabriceren = ‘kunst van man’, ntaff ɛawed tudsin (adas) jar iwdan d imdan d midden, marra iqqen ɣar weẓwar n [m.d].

Aẓwar n {M.N} nzemmar ad zzayes d nekkes awařen amecnaw: mun, atmun, amin (amin war iǧi ca d taɛrabt, awař ikke-d zi ‘amun’: arebbi n tfuct d uṣemmiḍ d umensif ɣar Imiṣriyen n zic. Qaɛ awařen ay da settfeɣ qqnen ijj ɣar wenneɣni, aqa ayen sadu tiři n ijj n weẓwar.

[a.r], [a.ri], ‘ara’ (= embryo/pasgeboren) arr, arra, arr niɣ ‘arra-unuri’; ‘ara n (ř)eḥram’,  atarras = ‘at-arra-s’. Ntaff dayes ɛawed: arra (akte), arra n řemrac/nnikaḥ, arra n tmeɣra (akte van huwelijk), arra n tmenziwt (akte van verkoop).

Zeg iẓewran i itarwen aṭṭas di Tmaziɣt, aẓwar n [f]. Min xseɣ ad iniɣ, aqa aẓwar n [f] nzemmar ad ayes naff ‘aff’, ‘twafit’, ‘afer’, ‘ifriwen’. Ntaff it awed iqqen niɣ itwaserbez aked wawařen nneɣni amecnaw, ‘afeg’, ixs ad yini <egg afriwen>, inni iteggen ifriwen ṭṭawen sminzi awař ‘afeg’ di Tmaziɣt n zic tuɣa qqarent i wenni iṭṭawen. Awař n ‘afeg’  di Tmaziɣt n zic ixs ad yini ‘ḍu’; afeg imun dayes af+egg = egg s wafar, niɣ egg s wafriwen.

[z.r]: izzar, izwar, ẓar, azirar, azzeř, tazermummect, taziri (waxxa tallest tzemmared ad tzared).

[ḥ]: aḥarbiḍ, aḥerḥur, aḥemmum, aḥannay, aḥecmuḍ (irden),

[x]: axarriq, ixarriqen, axrur, axna, xixxi, ixxan, axenzur, xenẓer, ect…

Řexxu ad newc cwayt n wakud i weẓwar n [q]: ḥřaḥař marra min iǧan d aneqsi niɣ teffeɣ it tcuni niɣ d iba (negatief) ntaff dayes [aq-] amecnaw: aqeyyuɛ (bu-qeyyuɛ) (aqerruɛ, aqerru, aqerruy), aqezzuɛ, aqennin, (aqninni war iǧi d tmaziɣt), aqella.., aqejdaḥ, aqeyḍar, aquḍaḍ, aqebbuz, aqebqab, aqennuz, aqeddac,  aqejjeɛ, aqzin (aqzun), aqeccar, aqedmar, aqelluc. {Aq-} am dayid yiwi bu  itran war iqqin ca ɣar aq/aqa/aqqa sminzi aẓwar nsen amezwaru ikked zi {aql-} amecnaw {aql-ac}uca ideweř ɣar uneggaru {aqqa=c}niɣ aqa-c. Mařa nedweř ɣar tmaziɣin n midden, ntaff ɣarsen awařen amecnaw agemmum (aqemmum= grote mond!), tagemmunt (taqemmunt), agnunni (aqnunni),  asegnunni (aseqnunni). S manya ntessen aqa aẓwar n [q] i iǧan deg ‘aqemmum’, ‘aqejjeɛ’…war qqinen ca ɣar umawař n [aqa-aQa].

Řexxu ad nemmuṭṭi ɣar umawařen n umarnu (= bijwoorden), ad nisi tnayen n imarnuten: aṭṭas d drus, amec twařam daysen [as d s],  [aṭṭ as] [dru-s]; ass di Tmaziɣt taqdint tuɣa qqarent i tfuct, ɛad rux ntaff awař n ‘ass’ deg wawařen amencanw: asammar, sammar, din imucan  qqaren asen ‘isummar’, neqqar as ɛawed: ruḥ ad tessummared’, ad tessummared tfuct. Aṭṭas d drus mtawen jarasen s wawař n tfuct i daysen innuffaren. Ass ntaff it ɛawed deg imawařen-a: ass-mmiḍ (ṣṣ!!), ass-ignu, , assmaḍ (apium), assam. Amawař iḍa/iḍu idweř d assa. Ad nesqudeḍ awař, aṭṭ-ass itwagg s tfuct, s tfawt (tfuct ttic tfawt). Aṭṭas d drus mtawan ijj ɣar wenneɣni, mařa nurzu deg iřsawen n midden war ntiff ca řadas jar aṭṭas d drus: Tafransist: [Peu/beaucoup], tagřanzect: [few, lot], taɛrabt: [qalil, Katir], latin [parum, multo] basque [txiki, azkos].

[d.l]:  (deř): naff it  di: ait si-dal;  deř umac!  sdeř, tyaẓit tesdeř, deg weẓwar ḥřaḥař d ijj ntaff: [d.r] amecnaw: ddar, addar, taddart, adar, adrar….

ad nemmuṭṭi ɣar wawařen n tzemmar, [..z]: marra mani iǧa weẓwar n [z] ntaff daysen acrac n lmeɛna n tzemmar amecnaw: mrz, bbz, řbez, ffz, cmez,ɣez, ddez, krez (carz, crez). Ad nexzar ɛawed [z…] ntaff daysen: zdem, zger (qḍeɛ), zɣer, erẓ. Deg iyyar d ijj ntaff aẓwar n [.z.] dayes: gzem (yzem, ařegzim!). Aẓwar n [r.z] ntaff dayes: arz, eɣz, marz, ca n wawařen daysen tnayen n twařatin azwař n [z] amecnaw azduz, ayezzim….. Tɣimant aṭṭas n tmesřayin ay di itwaxess tarezzut, ad tent nejj i twařat nneɣni.

Imaziɣen tidaren ca n wawařen xmi ssawaren ak niɣ x řmař amecnaw ‘bu-nif’ niɣ xmi ssarwaten ifeǧaḥen, ssawařen taɛrabt aked yeɣyař; ɣar wakud n wecraz ntesřa yasen qqaren ‘ɛellem nican’, ‘ṭarref’, ‘ṭleɛ’, ‘nzel, u xmi tawyen iɣyař ad asen ggen ticeḍyin, ntesřa ɛawed qqaren ‘rfed’. Manaya war ixs ca ad yini aqa Imaziɣen war tuɣa ɣarsen ca awařen i zi ɣa ssiwřen ak  řmař, sminzi mařa nedweř ɣar umezruy n wawařen n taɛrabt ntaff aṭṭas n wawařen i d areḍřen x Imaziɣen amecnaw ‘llisan’, ksint waɛraben zi Tmaziɣt taqdint ‘iles’, ‘tafsir’ (afsar di Tmaziɣt), ntaff ɛawed  [s] n Tmaziɣt (arss, s+arss, ɣar, s+ɣar, ḍar, s+ḍar) isint waɛraben sseymen zzayes awařen nsen amecnaw mařa nisi ‘kana’ uca immarni ɣares [s]= s+kana=sakana (izdeɣ). Uřa d [m] ay itmarenyen ɣar wawařen n Tmaziɣt amecnaw ẓar, mara narni ɣares [m] iddakkʷař m-ẓar, im-ẓar, amecnaw ‘neɣ’ iddakkʷař m-neɣ, manaya isint waɛraben u ntaff it deg wawařen nsen amecnaw ‘dahaba’ ‘m+adhab’, katab, m-aktab!. Ḥuma ad tenɣeḍ (anɣaḍ, inɣeḍ) řefhamet aked logica n wawařen di Tmaziɣt, tzemmarem ad tessijjem x wadeg n internet: ‘aserbez n wawař’:http://www.amazigh.nl/2012/02/aserbez-n-wawar,niɣ x ‘tamkerra n tutlayt’.


1 “…before the arrival of Celtic or Beltic tribes, these islands were populated by people, who spoke languages or dialects which, from the point of view of E.Lewy’s typology could be described as Hamito-Semitic, languages not necessarily connected with but similar type as Berber and Egyptian..” Wagner, H., 1987, “The Celtic invasions of Ireland and Great Britain: Facts and Theories, pp:19-20.

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