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Posted by on Dec 26, 2011 in De taal | 0 comments

Amyagg n ‘iři’ di Tmaziɣt n Arrif

1.         Tanebdat

Ntaff di Temgisent (mtyhology) n imrawen (ancestors) n wemḍal (planet) n tmurt aqa kuř aydud ggin as iřes nnes ijj war yarrwis deg wenneɣni ḥuma ijj war itessen min iqqar wenneɣni!

Tɛawaden iwdan n umezzawru (primitif) aqa marra iyduden tuɣa ssawařen s ijj n yiřes, Din ijj n tenfust n Babel teqqar aqa kkaren iwdan ad bnan ijj n tuzzya (tower) i yexf nsen ḥuma ad iqqim yisem nsen yarcem i jjiř i d ɣa ikkaren awaren asen. Arebbi n wakud nni war das yudif ca di řxaḍar min ggin am nni; minzi tuɣa neyycen ad sgeɛden tuzzeggaret n tuzzya zi tmurt ar ajenna.U min tuɣa ten ijjin ad ggen afus deg ufus aqa d twiza n wawař, minzi tuɣa radaset n uxarreṣ ttekked zi radaset u zi tsudsin n wawař. Arebbi yufa rid am nni uca issemxumber asen awařen ssenni qqimen ijj war issin min iqqar wenneɣni! Deɣya uc infartek weẓru n tuzzya, twaɣeḍren reḥyuḍ n Babel! Ad neqqen ameqsar, isem n Babel deg wedřis n wudayen ixs ad yini ‘aṭemmeṣ n yiřṣawen’ [confusion of languages] (xẓar: book of Genesis,11:9). Maca Babel, Babylon ɣar Igrikeyen (Greeks) ixs ad yini: tawwart/adaf n Arebbi).

Aṭṭas n tḥuja i iǧan x yiřsawen maca ad sbeddeɣ ḥuma war teffɣeɣ x usenteř. Deg ijj n uɣezdis nneɣni,  tiɣuri n temhazt (evolution) n tudersent (biology) n iřsawen qqarent aqa iřsawen n midden gguren ɣar zzat u meqqaren, temṣebḍan ijj x wenneɣni s umentiř (because of) n: (i) tawennaḍet (environement) n yewdan, (ii) asemtiw (socialization), (iii) aqqas n politik, u d waṭṭas n tɣawṣiwin.

Tarezzut x iewran n wawařen d ijj n tezrawt tuǧeɣ. Tiwalyin (periods) n wemyagg (verb) “iři’ ɣares ijj n umezruy imɣar u inneḍ aṭṭas. Ejj ad nebda s min qqaren iřsawen n midden d mammec ɣarsen issendeř (develop) wawař-a. Mařa nessiweř tidet, aqa adaf ɣar raǧaɣ izedgen n imezrayen n wawařen issuttar (requires) ad ɣares d nadef zi tewwart tameqqrant n tummest niɣ n iggiten n tusna n iřsiwen. Mařa nessij x tegřanject, ntaff ɣares am, are, is, was, were, be, being d been, tiřɣiwin (forms) n wawaren-a i neẓra war arwisen ca marra deg wayawya minzi war d kkin ca zeg ijj n weẓwar niɣ qqnen ɣar ijj n tadukli d ict; min ten ijjin war uydin ca ak wayawya minzi kraḍ n iẓewran i idewřen d aɣbař n beon d wesan; beon (to be) kkin-d zi Tlimant n zic, u teṭṭef asɣun ak tegřanzect iwsaren (old English) būan (to live, to dwell); Wesan tenɛaqed zi Tlimant n zic (wesana: to be, to exist, to remain).  Amudi n wemsenyagg deg iřsawen n midden nḍen aṭṭas ḥuma ad awḍen ɣar waddad (state/status) n yiḍa.

Rexxu ad nemmuṭṭi ɣar umsenyagg n ‘iři’ di Tmaziɣt nneɣ. Ejj ad newc ijj n umedya (example) zi Tmaziɣt waxxa war iqqim di marra iřsawen n Tmezɣa:

ili (be) (exist)

lli-ɣ (I am) (I exist)

t-lli-d (you are) (you exist)

i-ll-a (he is) (he exists)

t-ll-a (she is) (she exists)

n-ll-a (we are) (we exist)

t-ll-am (you are) (you exist)

t-ll-ant (you are. Pl,fem) (you exist)

ll-an (they are) (they exist)

ll-ant (they are,PL,fem) (they exist)

S umata, Tiřɣiwin (forms) n wawařen aqa-yent marra x ijj n webrid, marra arrewsent deg wayawya. Waxxa ntaff ca n tentalyin (dialects) ɣarsent asusru (prononciation) imsebḍa niɣ d unkis, maca tiřiwin tɣimant am nni, war tmuttuyent zeg wemcana nsent; amcnaw:

ǧi-ɣ

t-ǧi-d

i-ǧ-a

t-ǧ-a

n-ǧ-

t-ǧ-am

t-ǧ-ant

ǧ-in

ǧ-ant

Amc ttwařam s tiṭṭawin nwem war din tamrirt (trace, mark) n tdemist (mutation) n uřeqqem jar wawařen n tenfalyin (expressions).

2. Agemmir

Ad nebda zeg ijj n useqsi: ma iři (ili) n Tmaziɣt yuyda ak-d (to be) n Tegřanzect niɣ ak-d (être) n Tfansist? Huma ad narr x useqsi ya, ejj ad newc imedyan ḥuma ad nessemɣar tawengimt.

Jean is thin: John = thin

Michel est mince: Michel = mince

Ad nẓar rexxu s Tmaziɣt:

Mimun d azdad: Mimun =? azdad

Min yexs ad yini manaya? is, est war uydin ca ak ili, niɣ iři n Tmaziɣt. Manaya ixs ad yini aqa ili, niɣ iři war iǧi ca d amyagg  amcnaw imyagen n midden. Tasɣunt nnes teqqen ɣar tillin (existence). Tasɣunt n Tegřanzect/Tafransist ad ɣares nexẓar ammu:

X  = Y, (X be/être Y), X iqqen ɣar Y,

John iqqen ɣar tmesmunt n izdaden. Maca di Tmaziɣt ntaff Mammec nneɣni:

Mimun d azdad = Mimun + azdad. X +? Y

Asurif amezwar ixes ad nessen manis d ikka [d] n Tmaziɣt ař ami idweř issressaq awařen ijj ak wenneɣni? amcnaw di: [netta d aryaz], S minzi mařa nekkes [d] zi twinest (sentence) am di: [ netta  Ø aryaz], ad taff war neḍfar ca tajerrumt n Tmaziɣt. Rexxu ad negg tizemmar ad narzu manis d iqqars wawař-a. Ejj ad nedweř ɣar iřes n Misř taqdint (old Egyptian), nettat ɣares  [pw] amcnaw [d ] n Tmaziɣt, u ɣares ɛawed  [tj] amcnaw da s Tmaziɣt.

[tj]:    = da (here)

n.tj = wenni da (the one here)

[f.tj] = wenni diha (the one there)

Ad nesquḍed awař, ntaff da (here) d diha mqabařen ak ntj (da) d (f.tj) (diha); zzaysen i zi sressaqen awařen ak-d wayawya. Min yexs ad yini manaya? Ixs ad yini aqa azwař n [d] ikked zi da/diha.

Ad nesquḍed řhat, Tmaziɣt tarḍřed zi da/diha awař i teḥwaj ḥuma ad tesseseq jar wawařen u ad nẓar ɣar zzat aqa tesxdem iten di ca n imucan nneɣni.

Mimun d azdad = Mimun d(a) azdad

Rexxu nufa aqa amarnu -(adverb) da- d netta i yewcin awař i issdukkʷaren jar wasmawen. Netta war itbeddiř ca di forma nnes:

netta d aryaz

nitni d iryazen (assa)

ad idweř d aryaz (tiwecca)

tuɣa-t d aryaz (iḍennaḍ)

Di language typology, ntaff amsenẓay (demonstrative) d netta i yewcin awařen n wersaq deg waṭṭas n  iřsawen, di Tmaziɣt natff it deg imucan amcnaw:

d aryaz ay yeccin aɣrum. (FOCUS)

Ɛawed abeddeř n d zeg wemcana ɣar wenneɣni ismentes (provoke) abeddeř n unamek (meaning). U waxxa war ibeddeř amcan nnes, tzemmared ad tɣared x snat n tɣuri. Din imucan mani [d] ixs ad yini (is/be), u din umucan mani ixs ad yini (plus). Aqa din awařen di Tmaziɣt daysen da u ɣarsen anamek (meaning) n (here/da) amcnaw:

adas, yudes,

ma d wa, ma da wa,

xzar-d, dweř-d, ffeɣ-d,

sekka yi-d, ndar ayi-d, ect…

Marra imyagen sennej xmi itawyen –d, ixs ad yini (da); xmi neqqar: tehwa-d tfuct, ixs ad yini: aqa d tesqarrab niɣ tesradas amyag ɣar wenni issawařen. Mařa nenna:

[awi mmic ɣar temzida], war ǧi amcnaw: [awi-d mmic ɣar temzida],

Ad nesquḍed awař, rexxu nessen manis d ikka d n Tmaziɣt.

Maca tarezzut tameqqrant ɛad war tt nfekk ca. Ad nedweř ɣar umeyyag n iři, d mani ixes ad yiři. Mařa sseqsiɣc…nniɣ ac Mammec teǧid (tellid), twarrit ixs ad tiři:

Aqa ayi mliḥ…..(din wi iqqaren aqqa ayi)

Da war nzemmar ad nini:

Lli-ɣ mliḥ, niɣ ǧiɣ mliḥ

Manaya ixs ad yini aqa war nzemmar an egg (iři) di marra akuden (tenses).

Assa: aqa ayi di taddart

Iḍennaḍ: tuɣa ayi di taddart/ ǧa ǧiɣ di taddart

Tiwecca: ad iřiɣ di taddart

Neẓra sennej aqa iři ntegg it deg wakud n imař (future), war ten tegg ca deg wakud n zic, u war ten tegg ca deg wakud n iḍa (present!). Xẓar ɛawed Mammec itbeddař wemyagg n Tmaziɣt da swadday:

ǧ———–>aqa———->tuɣa (ǧa ǧi-)

Mammec te[ǧ]id? = How [are] you?

[Aqa] ayi mliḥ = [I am] ok,

[tuɣa] ayi di taddart = I [was] at home.

War ntettu ca aqa ntaff iři uřa deg wakud n wanaḍ (imperative) xmi ntic řumar amcnaw:

[iři d aryaz]

[iřim mliḥ]

[iřint di taddart ɣar wezzyen (n) nhar].

X ijj n uɣezdid nneɣni ntaff aqa iři iqqen ak wemyagg n tillin (existence) amcnaw:

Arebbi iǧa (illa) niɣ war iǧi(illi)?

Mařa neggas ansay (translation) ɣar tegřansect, ntaff: Does God exist or not?

Din ɛawed wi iqqaren aqa [illi, illu] tuɣa-t d isem n ijj n Arebbi n Imaziɣen, min sneɣ necc nican aqa [ill] ntaff it deg waṭṭas n wawawřen n ineglas (lmalaikat) d irebbiten n midden amcnaw:

Jibra[ill] Gabriel

Ɛazra[ill] Azrael

mixa[ill] Micheal

il/ill s tidet tuɣa d isem n Arebbi ɣar waṭṭas n regnus. Ntaf uřa isem n allah ɣar imseřmen dayse ll, ntaff ɛawed ill-ohim ɣar wudayen. Tḥajita temɣar ad as negg amcan nnes twarat nneɣni. Ad nedweř ɣar iři di Tmaziɣt, aṭṭas n wawařen di tmaziɣt taqdint dayes amyagg n ili/iři:

Age-lli-d

tilelli

alli

allun

lal (řaǧ)

agurz-il (Arebbi n garra ɣar Imaziɣen)

ulli/uǧi

Ntaff ɛawed ili, iři deg warwařen amcnaw: a-s-ři-w-ři-w, t-ili-w-li-win, iǧi= illi, ect…

3. Amṣafaḍ

S min tezrim sennej, nfekk drus amyagg n iři di Tmaziɣt. Neẓra aqa iři war iffiɣ ca x lmeɛna nnes u war ibeddeř ca arrimet nnes[ll=ǧ] amcnaw mammec neẓra deg iřsawen n midden. S uqeḍeḍ (briefly), Tamhazt (evolution) n Tmaziɣt tessiwed aydud ad yarẓu x wawařen nneɣni ǧan niɣ war ǧin. Inni iǧan war tidfen ca di tmuddemt (paradigm) n usekkiw (structuring) n Tmaziɣt. S uyenni i netwařa udfen-d wawařen nneɣni ḥuma ad qqnen aḥfur waxxa assaɣ niɣ tamaqqant (relation) jar asen amcnaw arriḥet n yewzan di fřiyyu. Ad newc ijj n umedɣa i twarnit n twengimt.

Aql => aqa => aqqa

Aql ayi => aqa ayi => aqqa ayi

Twafit n wawařen i neẓra sennej nɛarqen-d zeg umeyagg n aql ‘see’ , aql idweř aq, aq idweř d aqa, aqa iwca aqqa. Marra yina tuɣa ixes ad iřin ḥuma ad taff ad nzemmar ad nini:

Aqa ayi di taddart anemgař: lliɣ di taddart*

Aqqa iwdan anemgař: aqa iwdan*

U mařa nexs ad nessuyda Tmaziɣt ak Tegřanzect ntaff:

I am here = aqa ayi da

Manaya ixs ad yini aqa amyagg n ‘to be’ di Tegřanzect d iři n Tmaziɣt ggin amcnaw arriḥet n yewzan di fřiyyu. Sennej i manaya, řefhamet n [aqa] tedweř temɣar, amcnaw Mammec ntaff di:

Aqa ad tuyured!

Aqa, danita ixs ad yini: war ggur ca.

Zi aql (xzar) ař war (negation/warning), manaya d ijj n ubeddeř imɣar deg iřes n Tmaziɣt.

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