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Posted by on Jan 2, 2012 in De taal | 0 comments

​​Tirekkisent n tutlayt (language archeology)

Imentilen n unuri n iřsawen mseɣwen niɣ qqnen ɣar waṭṭas n tmesřayin. Xmi itmetta utarras iḍaffar it yiřes ɣar tmeḍřin. Maca iřes, ca n twařatin itfaqa-d. Waxxa itfaqa-d s ijj n warruḍ nneɣni, maca refhamet nni i das iwca bab nnes tɣima tarwes dayes aṭṭas. Ad negg neccin nnuryen ait n iřsawen, uca iqqim wawař, ma awař nni iqqimen nzemmar ad zzayes nessen axarreṣ n weydud? D manaya ixseɣ ad aniɣ s trekkisent n tuylat.   Zi tusna n tuylat niɣ zeg warruḍ i yarreḍ wawař, nzemmar ad neqqaz x uxarreṣ n weydud n zic, sminzi awař d ijj n ufaris (product) n yewdan. Zi teɣmarta nzemmar ad nsiden (take into account) aqa tuylat ɣares  udem n trekkisent. Da itaff aqa awař waxxa immut, itɣima weẓwar n uxarreṣ yuyeř. Ḥuma ad naǧeɣ di tusna, ad awem d idareɣ ca n wawařen ɛad ǧan maca war zzaysen ntemsawaḍ di tudart nneɣ. Ad nebda zi Murrakuc, awařa dayes tnayen n iẓewran n wawařen:

mur+akuc, awař amezwaru (mur,amur,t-ammur-t) iqqim iddar, nessawař zzayes jaraneɣ maca awař aneggaru (kuc) war iqqim ca. Mani xseɣ ad awḍeɣ s manaya? Tawnafit (curiosity) I tɣiwant n tarezzut (common research) deg iyyara ɣares aṭṭas n tɣemmura.   Deg iyyara, nfeɛ iwařa inni yarezzun deg iyyar n ddin mařa xsen ad awḍen ad ssnen aqa Imaziɣen tuɣa ɣarsen ijj n Arebbi qqaren as Akuc; Akuc-a war d ikka ca zeg ujenna, ntaff uřa d Ibureɣwaten tuɣa qqaren akuch, yakuch di tẓaǧit nsen. Ad nbedd ɣar wazzay n imesnawen n tuylatin d min ɣa yaymen zi ‘mur-akuch’.

a.​twafit tamezwarut, aqa timawařin n [mur+akuch], mmarsent zzat ijj I ​wayawya, ixs ad yini war din ca n temɣunt niɣ tazeřɣa (particle) I issaɣan ​jar mur d akuc. Di Tmaziɣ n yiḍa war nzemmar ad nini: t-ammur-t ​temsaman*, ​neqqar t-ammur-t n temsaman. Manaya ixs ad yini aqa ​Tmaziɣt taqdint ad yiři tuɣa zemmaren ad ggen tawinest (sentence) am ​war dayes n. n iwɛar ad iweddar zeg wemcan nnes, war iǧi ca amcnaw ​tirgařin nneɣni: r,k ​(sars—sas, faren—fan, ɣers–ɣars–ɣas ’slaughter’, ​curḍu-co?du), kksi—si. Amc tessnem aqa din aṭṭas n iřsawen war tiwyen ​ca tazeřɣa amcnaw Marakech city= tandint n murakuc, war iǧi= tandint n ​mur n yakuc!

b.​Twafit wis tnayen tesscan aneɣ aqa Tmaziɣt teggur teddakkʷař  d tawtent ​(feminine)! Min xseɣ ad iniɣ s wawařa? Awtem d tewtent aqa ayen uřa deg ​wawařen: din awařen iwtman, din tiwetmin, amcnaw da swadday:   ​ajenna​= ​d awtem (masculine) ​aẓru​​=​d awtem ​ayur​​=​d awtem   ​Maca din awařen d tiwetmin amcnaw:   t-fuc-t​​=​d tawtent (feminine) t-addar-t​=​d tawtent t-aziři​​=​d tawtent (full moon)​ ​ War iǧi ca marra iřsawen kif-kif deg wazzay n iwetman d twetmin. Sennej i manaya, min iǧan assa d awtem war itɣimi ca s uɣiř I řebda d awtem; izemmar ad idweř d tawtent. Mani xseɣ ad awḍeɣ s manaya? U mayemmi nniɣ aqa Tmaziɣt tmuṭṭuy zeg wewtem ɣar tewtent? Ad nedweř ɣar mur+akuc. Da ntaff aqa isem: [tammurt] tuɣa-t d awtem, war xseɣ ca ad iniɣ tuɣa-t d aryaz! Sminzi d aryaz awtem i yeggin tawtent niɣ ḥuma war tidfeɣ ca di tmesract n řfaz niɣ asnuḥyu (discrimination), ad iniɣ aqa talalit (birth) n wawařen twaggen s uxareṣ n iwetman.   Di Tmaziɣt n zic tuɣa war qqaren ca [tamurt+akuc]. Min ɣa nefhem zi manaya? amur netta d  amezzwer (the original) n wawař, war iǧi zi tmurt I d ikka amur, zi amur I d tekka tmurt. Amur d řaṣeř, tamurt d taseṭṭa (branch).

c.​Twafit wis třata, nzemmar ad naff tareẓmi (solution) n uslugen ​(standarisation) n Tmaziɣt deg wawařen n zic. ḥuma war netɣimi ntemsisi ​aṭṭas ak wayawya, ad nedweř ɣar mur+akuc, da ntaff aqa [t-ammur-t], ixes ​ad tnari t-amur-t. Abaru n wawařen i iǧan di Tmaziɣt n zic, d tenni d ​taɣmart manis ɣa nexẓar ɣar zzat, ad aneɣ tesscen tfawit i tarezzut.   d.​twafit taneggarut, wenni umi neqqar assa maruk (Morocco) d isem ​inɛarqe-d zi Tmaziɣt: mar=mur (amur) , uk inɛarqe-d zi kuc (akuc, yakuc), ​Aqa din ɛad ɣar wakuda řegnus qqaren as i Lmeɣrib murrakuc. Mařa ​narzu mammec das qqaren di tuylat n Tfarisit ad naff ɛad rux: qqaren as ​Murrakuc.   Iwdan xmi tidaren tandint n Murakuc, war txarṣen ca di min yexs ad yini wawařa, txarṣen di jameɛ-lefna! War txarṣen ca deg wejdab tuɣa teggen Imaziɣen x Yakuc. Amcnaw xmi ntidar Chigago, itas aneɣ-d ɣar řbař ‘Sears Tower’, ‘Lincoln Park zoo’, maca war ntettu ca aqa Chigago di ijj n yisem n Ihindaweyen n Umarikan. Chigago inɛarqe-d zi chicagoua, awařa ixs ad yini: ticcart. Ma itadeff aneɣ ɣar waǧi xmi neggur ɣar murakuc belli neggur ɣar tmurt n Yakuc, niɣ xmi neggur ɣar Chigago aqa neggur ɣar tmurt n ticcart!   Ad nzar ijj n wawař nneɣni: [a(d) yegga-c Arebbi řebyaḍ]! Niɣ [ad ac iwc Arebbi řebyaḍ]. Aɛraben qqarent i tuccemřeč. Awař deg iyyar n temkussna (semantic) d ijj. Da Imaziɣen war xsen ca ad farnen tuccemreč ak waṭṭan (sickness).

Manaya ixs ad yini aqa awař n: umellal, acemrař imuṭṭi zeg iyyar n temkussna waxxa Tmaziɣt teccur s wawařen n Tuccemreč:  CML= acemřař, tuccemřeč, acemřař, icemřařen, cemřeř, umřir, imřiřen, amřiř, mrič, tinemřeč (populus alba) uca řuḥ xas am nni….ad yiři war xsen ca ad carcen tuccemreč ak řebyaḍ! Sminzi aṭṭan mammec mma igga itɣima d ccamet di tneffut (the soul) n utarras niɣ n wartu. Maca mařa nedweř ɣar umezruy n ‘rebyad’ ad naff aqa ikked zeg waṭṭan I ireqfen tini (tayni) n Lmeɣrib deg wass n 1887. Awař n ‘Řebyaḍ’ qqaren aqa izḍeɣ di tmurt n Lmeɣrib. Xmi ireqqef cjart n tini, afar nnes iddekkwař d acemřař. Din wi iqqaren Řebyaḍ i ca nneɣni maca war ɣares da ca amcan di třemmizta!   Ad nemuṭṭi ɣar walili, isem n jj n tendint d taqdint di tmurt n yakuc. Xmi ntesřa awařa netxarreṣ deg umenkud (empire) n Roma: Volubilis. Di tidet, awařa aqa d Maziɣ ikked zeg weẓwar n: ařiři (oleander). Tandinta tuɣa iddebbara xas, deg ijj n wadud, ajeǧid umi qqaren Yuba wis tnayen d mmis batlimus. Ad nessquḍed awař, xseɣ ad iniɣ s manaya aqa tuɣa nuffa sennej isem n tmurt mani izedɣen Imaziɣen d maziɣ (murakuc), uřa d tineddam d timaziɣin amcnaw walili, tiṭṭawin, agadir, maca qbeř ɣa neẓwa ɣar wasmawen n tneddam, ad neqqim di walili.

a.​amezwar, tammurt n murakuc tuɣa tessyama ařiři, s uya i das ggin isma. ​Manaya imsasa ak yisem n tendint n Tiṭṭawin, řa nettat ggin as isma ​minzi ​aqa dayes aṭṭas n tařawin n waman; tiṭ tarwes deg isem n weɣbař, ​aɣbař (source) qqarent i mani ǧant tařawin. Umi d nɛarqen waɛraben ɣar ​Tmezɣa, uca imucan umi qqaren aɣbař gginas ɛin aɣbař (ɛin=tiṭ s ​taɛraft) arni xas ism nnes i ɣares. Ɛad rux ntaff dcurat d tneddam ​amcnaw ‘Ɛin ɣbala’, Din imucan di Dzayar třaɣan asen ‘source ɛin aɣbal’ ​niɣ ‘source d’ain aghbal’. Ad nessquḍed awař, Imaziɣen ewcin isem n ​imucan I di tuɣa tařawin s waṭṭas, eggin as aɣbař, usin d Aɛraben arenyen ​xas “ɛin” waxxa anamek (Lmeɛna) d ijj, ssenni usin d Ifransisen arenyen ​xas “source”. S wammu I qqimen wasmawen n Tmaziɣt ddaren ař assa.   Ɛawd ntaff tandint n ‘Gelmima’ qqaren as s Tmaziɣt agelmim, minzi aqa dayes igelmimen (ajeřmam n waman). Sennej i manaya, mayemmi war das třiɣin ‘alili’ ‘ařiři’. Ma tuɣa isem nnes qqaren as ‘ařiři’, ssenni ggin as niɣ idweř ‘wařiři’?. Di Tmaziɣt drus n wawařen i ibeddan s [w], amcnaw mammec ntaff di tandint n: wargla, warzazat, wehran, maca ca x ca ntaff aṭṭas n ismawen beddan s a: aẓru, aẓila, ajdir, agadir, asfi, azemmur, ameẓmiẓ, uca řuḥ xas ammu…. ​

b.​Amnus nneɣni dey iyyar d ijj, mayemmi tandint n ‘walili’ war das qqaren ca ​‘alili? S ijj n ​wawař nneɣni, manis d ikka [w] ař ami iqqim yuẓeɣ ​(grammaticalization) x ‘ařiři’’? Amezwar ad nessen imucan mani tiřin:   ​(i)​ijj n w-aryaz​​​-​w​= this=the ​(ii)​wa-nita​​​-​w​= this=the ​(iii)​w-nni​​​​-​w​= this=the ​ ​Waxxa wa ibeddeř udem nnes, iqqim ɛad ɣares ca n jjehd n wesscan (it ​retained some demonstrative force); wa ak-d ta ntaffiten di: wanita, tanita. ​Neqqar asen amqin n uziyyar ‘pronoms d’appui’. Wa iddakkʷař d win, ​wiin. Wa i inni yudsen, win d wiin i yinni yiggʷjen. Wa d awtem itmun ​ak wawařen n iwetman amcnaw xmi neqqar: wa d aryaz , ta d yeǧis. Mařa ​nedweř ɣar tuylatin tiqdimin ntaff ​awařen carcen amcnaw:   ​Tamiṣrect taqdint:​​Aramaik:​​Tmaziɣt/Tuareg   ​pw / pwy​​​hw​​​wa / wu ​tw / twy​​​hy​​​ta  / tu ​ipw​​​​innun​​​win   Ad nessquḍed awař, mařa nedweř ɣar umezruy n Tmaziɣt taqdint ad naff aqa [wa] i iǧan deg isem n tendint n  [walili] netta d asekkiř i immuṭṭyen zi demonstartive pronoun ɣar definite article: ařiři= oleander; walili= the oleander. Ad nessedmar Tmaziɣt ak-d Tlatinect ḥuma ad nefhem mliḥ. Di Tlatinect illus amcnaw= wen(ni), s Tmaziɣt. Ad nexzar min ewcin  [Illus ille, illa, illud]  deg wařsawen n midden.   Ille​=====→​el​ (el hombre) di Tseppanyut Illa​=====→​la​  (la niña)   Ad narzu di Tfansist: ille n Tlatinect (Tuylat n Romance) turud le:   Ille​=====→​le​ (le chat) Illa​=====→​la​  (la maison)

Am nni uřa di Tṭalyant (il la) u deg waṭṭas n iřsawen n midden. Wenni ixsen ad issnen aṭṭas x manaya izemmar ad idweř ɣar tuylatin tiqdimin, minzi tarezzut di Tmaziɣt icewwar as twiza ḥuma ad nessen tamhazt (evolution) n tuylat nneɣ.

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