Auteur Topic: 1911 - 1927 Rif War. Second Moroccan War  (gelezen 12840 keer)

« Gepost op: 18/10/2005 om 21:07:05 »
Chronology

Strictly speaking the Rif War lasted from 1921 to 1927, however, for convenience I include the preceding conflicts as well. 


1928 europeans and moroccans

1904

In October the French and British agree to let the French take control of Morocco as long as the coast facing Gibraltar was in weaker Spanish hands. In November the French and Spanish governments agree that the the Mediterranean coast of Morocco is a Spanish zone of influence.  In practice this makes little difference as the Spanish remain in their five fortified towns.  The French continue their own westward push into Morocco south of the Spanish Zone. 

1909 - 1910

On 9 Jul 1909 six European railway workers are killed by Riffi tribesmen.   And as a result the Melillan garrison is increased from 5,000 men to 22,000 in preparation for an offensive.  The Spanish army are untrained, ill-equipped, and devoid of basic maps, however, by Jan 1910 the Spanish have subdued some of the more easterly tribes, and pushed out their Melilla enclave to encompass the area from Cape Tres Forcas to the southern inlets of Mar Chica.  However, this was achieved at the cost of 2,517 casualties.  All the Spanish forces involved were Spanish conscripts; at this stage Spain had neither professional troops, nor indigenous troops under arms. 

1911

Dámaso Berenguer founds the first unit of Regulares (indigenous troops commanded by Spanish officers) as a result of studying native units in French employ. 


1913 regulares

1912

Both Millán Astray and Francisco Franco arrive in Melilla.  In the years leading up to 1920, both men make their names leading Regulares in the Moroccan campaigns. 

Jun 1911 - Jun 1912

In 1911 Spanish forces start venturing into the hinterland to establish authority over the kabyles (tribes) of Yebala, Gomara, and the Rif Mountains.  In June the Spanish seize Larache and Alcázarqivir.  Officially this is in the interests of the Sultan of Morocco, but it is really to establish Spanish authority.    On 24 August the whole Melillan sector was plunged into war when Riffi under El Mizzian attacked a cartographic detachment of the General Staff under Major Molina.  The war drags on into 1912 partly due to the Spanish publics opposition to offensive action.  The war comes to a close when El Mizzian is killed in a minor skirmish in late spring, and by mid-June most of the eastern tribes have signed peace treaties. 

14 Nov 1912

The French and Spanish sign a treaty making Spanish Morocco a protectorate. 

May 1913 - Jul 1915

The Spanish attempt to suppress El Raisuni - a local tyrant, cattle rustler, extortionist, and generally bad guy based in the Jibala in western Morocco.  El Raisuni mobilises his forces in April/May 1913, and the Spanish (including the Regulares) respond by conducting several operations to impose their authority. 

1 Feb 1914

Battle at Beni Salem on the outskirts of Tetuán.    Franco is promoted to captain as a result. 
Jul 1915 - Nov 1918
The Spanish adopt a strategy of temporization against El Raisuni, putting diplomacy before armed might.  This is partly due to WWI. 

29 Jun 1916

Spanish forces take the mountain top village of El Biutz six miles to the west of Ceuta. The rebels had been massing in the hills, and El Biutz was their main stronghold as it dominated the road from Ceuta to Tetuán.  Although the village is defended by entrenched machine guns and riflemen, the Spanish launch a frontal assault up the hill lead by the 2nd Tabor of Melilla.  As the attack progresses more Tribesmen pour down the back of the hill behind the Spanish catching them in a cross fire.  The Spanish forces take heavy casualties, including the commander of the leading company of Regulares.  Captain Francisco Franco assumes command of this company, breaks  through the enemy encirclement and plays a significant part in taking the village.  Sometime during the action Franco is shot in the stomach, but continues to direct his men.  Franco is promoted to Major as a result and hence posted back to Spain.

Mar 1919

Spanish occupy Alcazarseguir on 21 March.  El Raisuni, reacting to the new aggressive stance of the Spanish authorities, breaks off communications and recommences guerilla war by attacking Spanish supply convoys. 

Aug 1919

Upon the death of General Gómez Jordana, Dámaso Berenguer, now a General, returns to Morocco as High Commissioner for the Protectorate. 

End of Sep 1919

The Spanish occupy Fondak fort on the Tangier-Tetuán road in the western zone. 
In the eastern zone, the Spanish under Luis Aizpuru push their front out to a line from the mouth of the Kert River to Zoco del Telata.
 
7 - 27 Oct 1919

Millán Astray studies the French Foreign Legion at Tlemcen and Sidi  bel Abbés with a view to creating a Spanish equivalent. 

Early 1920
 
In the western zone, the Spanish penetrate the rugged uplands south of Tetuán.
In the east, the cautious Aizpuru is replaced in January by Gen. Manuel Fernández Silvestre, a man known to rely more on 'cojones' ('balls') than military acumen.  Silvestre undertakes a series of spectacular advances.
   
4 Sep 1920
 
A Royal Order authorises the formation of the 'Tercio de Extranjeros' ('Regiment of Foreigners') - known popularly as 'La Legion'.  Millán Astray commands, and Francisco Franco is his second in command. 


« Laatst bewerkt op: 20/10/2005 om 19:57:17 door Izouran »

« Reactie #1 Gepost op: 18/10/2005 om 21:09:59 »
14 Oct 1920

Three Spanish columns take Xaüen.  Viewed as a holy city by the Berbers, Xaüen was also El Raisuni's major city.  Tucked into a deep gorge, the historic fortified redoubt was had been viewed as unconquerable.  The city is taken largely because of a military Arabist, Colonel Alberto Castro Girona.  Girona enters the city disguised as a charcoal burner, then bribes and threatens the local notables into surrender. 

Late Oct 1920

After taking Xaüen, the Spanish forces move east along the Gomara coast, leaving a strong policing force to guard the Tetuán-Xaüen road.  Franco and the Legion are amongst the guards. 

7 Jan 1921

The Legion fights its first battle.   The 2nd company is attacked and Balthasar Queija Vega becomes the first Legionary to die in combat.

16 Jan 1921

The Legion experiences its first significant fight.  The 4th company of 2nd Bandera is attacked when guarding the road between Zoco el Arbaa and Xarquia Xeruta; the captain, Don Pompilio Martinez Zaldivar, is killed.  In response, the  5th and 6th companies decimate the enemy and drive them off.

17 Feb 1921

Silvestre takes Monte Arruit in preparation for advancing across the Amekran River.  Silvestre laughs in response to Abd-el-Krim's warning that if Silvestre crosses the Amekran the tribes would resist in force.   

1 Jun 1921

Major Jesús Villar sets up a fortified post at Abarrán, five kilometers west of  Annual in the eastern zone. Villar leaves 200 Regulares and 50 Spanish (including two captains and a lieutenant) to defend the post.   By mid-afternoon 1,000 Riffi, in two groups, had surrounded the post.   One of the Regulares fired ten shots as a signal to the rebels within and without the fort to attack.  179 loyal troops are killed in the fighting, including the officers; the survivors are forced to retreat to Buy Meyah. 
(The post was likely to have been a triangle of blockhouses.  Spanish blockhouses of the time were 6 m by 4 m wooden structures, with sandbags 1.5 m  up the walls, and a corrugated iron roof.  They were surrounded by 3 or 4 strands of barbed wire.  A typical blockhouse garrison was 21 men, and these had to  be provisioned by armed convoys.) 

27 Jun 1921

The 1st and 3rd Banderas fight off rebel bands at the hill positions of 'Muñoz Crespo' and Buharrat.  The Legion suffers 13 dead (including one officer) and 27 wounded.  The Legionaries are part of Colonel Castro Girona's column whose task is to establish a line of blockhouses between Xaüen and Uad Lau. 

29 Jun 1921

Gen. Berenguer's forces finish surrounding El Raisuni's stronghold at Tazarut in the western zone.  The blockhouses form a line between Xaüen and Uad Lau, and a  line between Xaüen and Alcazarquivir. 

8 - 14 July 1921

Abd-el-Krim directs Riffi insurgents to increase harassment of Silvestre's lines. 

16 July 1921

Riffi attack the advance posts of Igueriben and Buy Meyan in the eastern zone. 

17 July 1921

The Riffi attack all along Silvestre's line - particularly at Igueriben.  All efforts to relieve Igueriben fail. 

21 Jul 1921

Silvestre arrives at Annual with reinforcements.  Late in the afternoon he organises a relief column for Igueriben (4,000 men).  Twice Silvestre leads cavalry charges toward the besieged outpost, but is driven back by Riffi artillery and machineguns (captured from the Spanish at Abarrán).  Silvestre orders the evacuation of Igueriben, but only two of the defenders make it out. 


1923 legionaries at dardarius

22 - 23 Jul 1921

At 10 am on 22 Jul 1921 Silvestre orders the retreat from Annual.  The withdrawal soon becomes a rout and the Spanish army of 14,000 men is destroyed by only 3,000 Riffi under Abd-el-Krim. 
By evening of 23 Jul Abd-el-Krim's men have occupied the crests of the Gurugú Mountain overlooking Melilla.  Behind them scattered Spanish forces make desperate stands against the victorious tribesmen.  It takes 3 weeks for the Riffi to take all the isolated outposts.   There are major massacres at outposts near Melilla, Dar Drius, Monte Arruit (9 Aug) and Nador (2 Aug).  The Spanish suffer 13,192 casualties over three weeks, including 8,000 dead and hundreds captured .   Silvestre is one of the dead. 
In the western zone the planned assault on Tazarut is called off so the Legion reinforcements can be sent to the east.   

24 Jul 1921 

Civilian morale at Melilla is boosted when the 1st and 2nd Banderas of the Legion arrive.  The Legion occupy defensive positions in the suburbs. 

25 Jul 1921

Reinforced by two tabors of Regulares of Ceuta, the Legion occupy the hills of Sidi Hamed and the Atalyón.  Three Spanish Infantry Battalions take over garrison duty in Melilla. 
Over the next few weeks the Legion fight several actions against the Riffi tribesmen, either defending their sandbagged blockhouses, or escorting pack-mules to the forward positions. 

2 Aug 1921

From his position in the outskirts of Melilla, Franco watches the last Spanish defenders of Nador being overcome.  His request to relieve the siege had been denied. 

9 Aug 1921

Monte Arruit falls to the Riffi. 

8 Sep 1921

A large Spanish convoy is blocked trying to reach a strongpoint at Casabona.  Franco leads the 2nd Bandera, two companies of the 1st, and two tabors of Rgulares of Ceuta against the Riffi tribesmen entrenched in positions dominating the road.  Bayonet charges and close quarter fighting are the order of the day.  The Legion suffers 90 casualties and the Riffi 100. 

14 Sep 1921 

Men from an army Disciplinary Battalion relieve the defenders of the blockhouse at Dar Hamed, known as 'El Malo' ('the bad one'). 

15 Sep 1921
 
The Rif surround Dar Hamed. Artillery fire wounds the Spanish officer in charge of the blockhouse, and kills several men.   
15 volunteers (under Corporal Seceso Terroro) from the 1st Bandera on Atalayón reach the blockhouse as darkness falls.   The Rif attack again, but are held by the Legionaries' rifle fire and grenades.  Toward midnight the Riffi bring up their artillery and pound the blockhouse into rubble - there are no survivors.



17 Sep 1921

The Spanish launch a major attack against Nador, ten miles to the south of Melilla.  At 7 am the 1st and 2nd Banderas, the Regulares of Ceuta, and three Spanish Infantry Battalions advance from Side Hamed.  The Spanish suffer fire from Riffi artillery on Gurugú Mountain, but the Riffi positions are bombarded by a more impressive Spanish array including plans, artillery, and the guns of the offshore fleet.  Riffi machine gun and rifle fire halts the advance at the Amadi gorge.  Millán Astray is wounded in the chest and evacuated.  Franco leads the 1st and 2nd Banderas along the heights above the gorge.  Although exposed to heavy fire the Legion clear the gorge edge of tribesmen as far as Monte Arbós. The two Banderas suffer 33 casualties. 

18 Sep 1921

The Legion enters Nador where mutilated Spanish corpses have littered the town since the Disaster of Annual - the smell is appalling.  The Legionaries spend the next six days burying the dead.   

« Laatst bewerkt op: 20/10/2005 om 19:59:21 door Izouran »

« Reactie #2 Gepost op: 18/10/2005 om 21:12:40 »
2 Oct 1921

Franco with the 1st and 2nd Banderas and the Regulares of Ceuta successfully assault ravines and trenches at Sebt.  The Legion suffer 150 casualties.    Franco and his men are the vanguard of Gen. Berenguer's new westward offensive toward the River Kert (Gen Sanjurjo is the operational commander). 

5 Oct 1921

Sanjurjo's column take Atlatlen. 

8 Oct 1921

Heavy fighting on the crests of Gurugú Mountain were the Legion suffer 121 casualties. 

23 Oct 1921

In the western zone, the new 4th Bandera conduct bayonet charges against rebel 'harkas' (bands) around Monte Magán.
 
24 Oct 1921

The Legion occupies Monte Arruit in the eastern zone.  They have to bury the corpses of the 800 Spanish that tried to make a stand here during the retreat from Annual in July. 

28 Oct 1921

More bayonet charges by the 4th Bandera at Monte Magán.  The suffer a total of 72 dead and 212 wounded during the fighting of 23 and 28 Oct. 

10 Nov 1921

Millán Astray arrives back in Ceuta (western zone) although his chest wound hasn't fully healed.  In conjunction with larger Spanish columns, he spends the next couple of months he leading the 3rd, 4th and new 5th Banderas in operations in the Beni Arós and Yebala regions. 

18 Nov 1921

Back in the eastern zone, the 1st and 2nd Banderas, with some native police, scale a steep ravine and take the old forts on Uisán Mountain.  As the weather deteriorates over the next few days, operations are extended to Ras Medua, Tauriat Hamed and El Harcha. 



8 Jan 1922

Dar Drius - an important rail depot in the eastern zone - is captured. 

10 Jan 1922

During a retreat from Dráa el Asef in the western zone, Millán Astray is wounded in the leg and evacuated again.  This retreat is also notable for an incident where the 8th Company of the Legion (in the 3rd Bandera) resort to knife work when fighting off ten times their own numbers. 

Mid Jan 1922

After attacks by Riffi, the Legionary defenders of a blockhouse near Dar Drius appeal for help to the Spanish commander of the village.   The officer orders his entire Legionary contingent to the rescue.  Major Franco decides that 12 is enough and calls for volunteers.  When the entire unit steps forward, Franco chooses 12 and they make their way to the blockhouse.  After a night of fierce fighting Franco and the 12 volunteers return carrying the bloody heads of 12 tribesmen. 

14 Feb 1922

Millán Astray arrives at the Legion camp at Dar Drius. 

Mid-March 1922

Gen. Berenguer resumes operations against the Beni Said and Beni Ulixech in the eastern zone. 

18 Mar 1922

Millán Astray leads the 1st and 2nd Banderas on an advance on Ambar.  The Legion suffers 86 casualties during fierce but unsuccessful counter-attacks by the rebels. 

12 May 1922

After months of manning outposts and escorting convoys the 3rd and 5th Banderas join the final occupation of Tazarut - El Raisuni's stronghold, although the man himself escapes.   



26 Oct 1922

After considerable opposition, the Spanish take Tizzi Azza.  This is a fortified hill top position to the south of Annual in the eastern zone. 

Start of Nov 1922

The Rif preempt a Spanish attack based at Tizzi Azza by taking the dominating heights above the town and firing down into the garrison.  They force the Spanish to dig in for the winter, and inflict 2000 casualties over the course of the siege. 

13 Nov 1922

Lt. Col. Rafael de Valenzuela Urzais replaces Millán Astray as commander of the Legion.

17 Jan 1923

At his own request Franco leaves the Legion for a posting back to his old regiment in Oviedo.

27 Jan 1923

Acting against the wishes of the army, the Spanish government pays Abd-el-Krim for the return of the prisoners taken at Annual in Jul-Aug 1921.  The 45 officers (including the second in command, General Navarro), 245 soldiers, and 40 civilians cost the Spanish people 4,270,000 pesetas.   

5 Jun 1923

A Spanish supply convoy  leaves Tafersit for the outpost at Tizzi Asa (besieged since November the previous year).  Col. Gómez Morato commands the column, while Lt. Col. Valenzuela leads the vanguard (1st, 2nd and 4th Banderas, and a Tabor of Regulares).  Fire from entrenched tribesmen halts the Regulares at Iguermisen ravine.  With Legion machineguns pinning the rebel harka in place, the 1st and 2nd Banderas attack the right flank and the 4th to the left.   Morato on the extreme right orders a general attack.  Valenzuela sends the 1st and 2nd Banderas charging up the slope toward the enemy entrenchments.  During the grenade and bayonet work amongst the trenches, Valenzuela and his escort are shot down.  The scattered Legionaries rally to their nearest officer and drive the Riffi from the trenches.  Legion casualties are 186 including the dead Valenzuela.   

8 Jun 1923

Lt. Col. Franco given command of the Legion. 

2 Aug 1923

In the relief of the Tifaruin outpost (besieged by 9,000 Riffi), near the mouth of the river Kert, Franco leads the 1st and 2nd Banderas in a wide flanking movement to the right of the the enemy entrenchments.  His attack on the Riffi flank and rear allows the Regualres of Alhucemas and Melilla to break through to Tifaruin.

12 - 15 Sep 1923

Gen. Miguel Primo de Rivera conducts a successful coup d'état in Spain. 

25 Feb 1924 - Jun 1924

Franco leads his Banderas in numerous operations to open up the supply routes to Tizzi Asa, Sidi Mesaud, and other outposts.   
Abd-el-Krim lead an offensive against Sidi Mesaud about the time Sanjurjo took over command in Melilla.  The attack was driven back by Franco and the Legion. 
By June Abd-el-Krim (now the self proclaimed Emir of the Rif) has the support of Beni Hassan, Beni Hosmar and many others in the western zone.  He has 80,000 men in arms.   They are well supplied with weapons and ammunition including 200 artillery pieces.   

20 Aug 1924

The Spanish begin withdrawing from the Lau sector of the western zone.  This is the first step in evacuating the 400 exposed outposts in the three most threatened sectors: the Lau valley, the Tetuán-Xaüen road, and the gorges of the Beni Arós. The troops are to withdraw to the more defensible coastal fringes.  Abd-el-Krim steps up his attacks as the Spanish withdraw






« Laatst bewerkt op: 20/10/2005 om 19:46:04 door Izouran »

« Reactie #3 Gepost op: 18/10/2005 om 21:15:01 »
5 - 21 Sep 1924

By 5 Sep the Abd-el-Krim's harkas control the Gorgues Mountains to the south-east of Tetuán.  10,000 Spanish soldiers (including the 6th Bandera) are surrounded in the Xaüen district, mainly in the city itself. 
Spanish columns including Banderas 2 through 5, spend September clearing the enemy from their positions in the Gorgues Mountains, thus opening the road to Xaüen. 

23 Sep - 2 Oct 1924
   
On 23 Sep two Spanish column leave Tetuán for Xaüen.  Gen. Serrano's column reaches Xaüen on 30 Sep after fierce fighting.  Gen. Castro Girona arrives on 2 Oct.  The 1st, 3rd, 4th and 5th Banderas form the vanguard of these columns. 

2 Oct - 14 Nov 1924

Legionaries and Regulares evacuate the Spanish personnel from the 100 outposts around Xaüen.  All Spanish forces are concentrated in the city itself. 
 
16 Oct 1924

General Primo de Rivera, the Spanish dictator, names himself High Commissioner of Morocco. 
All Spanish forces have been successfully withdrawn from the Beni Arós sector.  The 2nd Bandera were responsible for protecting the withdrawal.

21 Oct 1924

Millán Astray, now on the staff of the High Commission, has his left arm shattered in an action near Fondak fortress.  The arm subsequently has to be removed. 

15 Nov  - 13 Dec 1924

All Spanish troops and civilians (along with some Jewish and Moroccan civilians) evacuate Xaüen covered by Franco with five Banderas of the Legion.  The Beni Urriaguel attack the flanks of the retreating columns.  Once again the Spanish are organised in two columns under Generals Serrano and Girona. 

17 - 19 Nov 1924

Just after midnight on 17 Nov Franco silently pulls his rearguard out of Xaüen, leaving straw dummies in Legionary uniforms to man the walls.  The legionaries protect the retreating columns in appalling weather conditions against heavy attacks.  Capt. Arredondo's 1st company (of the 1st Bandera) is completely wiped out when covering the withdrawal from Xeruta. 
Abd-el-Krim captures El Raisuni in Xaüen. 
Gen. Serrano is killed about 19 Nov, and the Spanish are consolidated into one column at Zoco el Arbaa. 

19 Nov - 10 Dec 1924

The Spanish at Zoco el Arbaa are surrounded for three weeks, but break out on 10 Dec.

11 - 12 Dec 1924

Still protected from heavy attack by the legionary rearguard, the Spanish column limps into Tetuán.  Legion casualties in the entire retreat are about 1,000; the rest of the column experienced a similar number of casualties. 
 
9 Apr - Jun 1925

Abd-el-Krim attacks French positions along the Uarga River with five harka.  By June  more than 3,000 French troops are dead or missing, and two thirds of the French advanced posts have been captured.  The Riffi reach within 20 miles of Fez. 

28 Aug 1925

Marshal Pétain (of Verdun fame) launches an offensive along the Uarga River with 160,000 French troops.  This is part of a combined Franco-Spanish operation that will also involve 75,000 Spanish troops. 

3 - 13 Sep 1925

In an effort to divert the allies, Abd-el-Krim besieges the fort at Cudia Tahar in the Gorgues mountains.  By 8 Sep 176 of the 200 man garrison are dead.  On 10 Sep a relief column under Gen Sousa sets out, and after hard fighting relieve the fort on 13 Sep.  The relief is spearheaded by the 2nd and 3rd Banderas who suffer 144 casualties during the operation.   

8 Sep 1925

The Ceuta column under Gen. Saro lands on the beaches at Alhucemas Bay.  At 6.30 am 50 Spanish and French naval vessels start pounding the 20 Riffi batteries entrenched in positions overlooking the beaches. At 8.30 am 76 aircraft join the attack.  By 11 am tugs and gun boats are towing the Spanish landing craft toward the beaches.  8,000 men, three batteries and 10 tanks fill the WWI vintage landing craft.  At 1000 yards the landing craft cast off and proceed alone.   Riffi artillery pound the Spanish landing craft as they approach, and Riffian machinegun and rifle fire starting taking their toll when the Spanish are 50 yards out from the beach .
Franco commands the mixed Legionary, Moroccan, and Spanish Regular force in the first line.  His men leap into the water and wade ashore when the landing craft ground.  Franco quickly orders an assault on the enemy positions on two hills overlooking the beach (El Fraile and Morro Nuevo).  The native police of Larache (Mehal-la) attack in the centre; the 6th and 7th Banderas attack on the left, and a harka of Moroccan irregulars attacks on the right. The Legionaries take the entrenched artillery position at bayonet point, and by 3 pm, still suffering heavy Riffi bombardment, Franco's men are digging in.   Total Spanish losses in the initial landings come to 144. 
 
20 Sep 1925

Despite repeated Riffi counter-attacks 15,000 Spanish troops have been landed at Alhucemas Bay by 20 Sep. 

23 Sep 1925

At 6.20 am, under cover of an air and artillery barrage, Major Muñez Grandes leads the Riffi irregulars and two Bandera (6th and 7th) against prepared rebel positions (including minefields and trenches) on the left of the Spanish beachhead.  Easily clearing the first enemy lines, the Spanish force assault the heights of Monte Malmusi at 10.45 am.  They suffer 215 casualties but by the morning of 24 Sep they have cleared the tribesmen from trenches and caves on the mountain.  The clearances  involve heavy use of mortars, grenades, bayonets and knives. 
Meanwhile, to the east of the beachhead, the 2nd and 3rd Banderas take the heights of Morro Viejo and lower Malmusi. 

30 Sep 1925

As part of a general Riffi retreat, the heights of Monte Palomas, Cónico and Buyibar fall to the Spanish.

22 Oct 1925

Spanish troops capture and set fire to Axdir - Abd-el-Krim's capital.   

8 Oct 1925

French and Spanish forces meet at Zoco el Telata. 

9 Feb 1926

Franco is promoted to Brigadier-General.  Millán Astray replaces him as commander of the Legion. 

4 Mar 1926

Millán Astray is shot in the face while supervising the 8th Bandera fortify a hilltop in the Gorgues mountains.  He is evacuated (again).  He loses his right eye, and is badly scarred as a result. 

15 Apr 1926

325,000 French troops launch their spring offensive against Abd-el-Krim's remaining 40 kabyles. 

8 - 10 May 1926

140,000 Spanish troops join the offensive.  They advance south against 12,000 predominantly Beni Urriaguel tribesmen defending the central Rif.  Legionaires (1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th, and 8th Banderas), Regulares, Mehal-la and Spanish Regulars defeat the Riffi in battles on and around the heights of Loma de los Morabos. 

27 May 1926

Abd-el-Krim surrenders to French troops at Targuist and is subsequently exiled to Réunion Island in the Indian Ocean. 

28 May 1926

Millán Astray rejoins the Legion at Dar Riffien. 

Jun - Dec 1926
Pacification operations against kabyles. 



Mar - Jun 1927

The Ketama kabyle and their allies revolt in the Rif.   They are pacified by June. 

18 Jun 1927
 
Millán Astray promoted to Brigadier General and leaves the Legion for good. 

10 Jul 1927

The 7th Bandera occupies Bab Tazza in Gomara and the Spanish Protectorate is declared pacified. 


Bron:

http://www.balagan.org.uk/
« Laatst bewerkt op: 20/10/2005 om 20:01:28 door Izouran »

« Reactie #4 Gepost op: 19/10/2005 om 00:17:17 »
Dankje Izouran voor deze info.
Hier is ook wat infomatie.
http://www.amazigh.nl/artikelen/lees.php?aid=136


« Reactie #5 Gepost op: 19/10/2005 om 01:13:14 »
Izouran, wat is de bron?

« Reactie #6 Gepost op: 20/10/2005 om 03:03:38 »
De rest komt nog plus de spectaculaire foto's ;)
.

« Reactie #7 Gepost op: 20/10/2005 om 20:03:45 »
Mooie weergave van wat er zich afspeelt in de rif oorlog. hoop dat jullie er wat aan hebben. Ik vond het fantastisch.

Mijn dank Izwan voor die link ;)

« Reactie #8 Gepost op: 20/10/2005 om 20:15:48 »
Mooie weergave van wat er zich afspeelt in de rif oorlog. hoop dat jullie er wat aan hebben. Ik vond het fantastisch.

Mijn dank Izwan voor die link ;)
Je zou nog meer posten.
Er wordt ook gevraagd naar je bron.

« Reactie #9 Gepost op: 20/10/2005 om 20:20:43 »
Mooie weergave van wat er zich afspeelt in de rif oorlog. hoop dat jullie er wat aan hebben. Ik vond het fantastisch.

Mijn dank Izwan voor die link ;)
Je zou nog meer posten.
Er wordt ook gevraagd naar je bron.


Bron heb ik al gezet... gaat is goed kijken.

« Reactie #10 Gepost op: 20/10/2005 om 20:22:28 »
Mooie weergave van wat er zich afspeelt in de rif oorlog. hoop dat jullie er wat aan hebben. Ik vond het fantastisch.

Mijn dank Izwan voor die link ;)
Je zou nog meer posten.
Er wordt ook gevraagd naar je bron.


Bron heb ik al gezet... gaat is goed kijken.
Dank je. Ik had dat niet gezien.

« Reactie #11 Gepost op: 20/10/2005 om 20:25:59 »
;)
« Laatst bewerkt op: 28/10/2005 om 11:46:05 door Izouran »